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A scanning electron microscope uses electrons to produce pictures. It offers 1,000 times increase in resolution over the light microscope. מיקרוסקופ אלקטרונים are generated with the help of an optical electron column as well as an air vacuum system. To fully understand the functioning of an electron scanning microscope be aware of its parts. Prior to purchasing the first microscope, here are some things to remember:

Electronic gun

Electronic guns, which is an element in the scanning electron microscope, emits an electron beam. The electron gun regulates the beam’s parameters. The gun has particular importance in the fabrication of miniature electron-optical columns. Because of their high brightness and tiny source size, field-emission cathodes are the best choice to fabricate such columns. The device is equipped with a low threshold voltage and high emission currents, ranging from at least 90 uA.

The electron beam is created by the electronic gun. It emits electrons from an indirect heated cathode. Electrons are released through electrodes when electricity is applied across them. Based on current flow through the electrodes, the strength of the beam may change. The gun doesn’t emit electrons in broad beams, in contrast to the cathode. The electron gun emits one that is well-focused and sharply focused.

Magnifying lenses

One of the primary reasons for using magnetic lenses for SEM is to boost contrast. Magnetic lenses can’t make parallel electrons converge into an arc. They have a range of optical aberrations. This includes spherical, chromatic, and diffraction errors. This can be eliminated through altering the operating conditions for the SEM. Below are a few of the advantages and drawbacks to using magnetic lenses in SEM.

A common way SEM operates is to collect and examine backscattered electrons. SEMs have higher energy level than backscattered electrons and can therefore be used to study non-conductive material. The material must be dehydrated before using the SEM, however. SEM is used to identify morphology and chemical composition. It also has the ability to identify surface topography and microstructure. In addition to the above functions, SEM can also inspect components of microchips and semiconductors.

Condenser lenses

Condenser lenses are used to control the intensity of scanner electron microscopes (STEM). They decide how strong the beam directed, as well as focusing it on the specimen. There are two types of condenser lens: a single lens which focuses the beam onto the sample or a double one that produce a diminished view of the source. Underbench Freezers is more affordable and adjustable. It allows the user to manage the size of the diminished image.

The electron column is the result of a blend of the source and condenser lens elements. The convex lens concentrates electrons upon the object and is formed by these two elements. fluorescence spectrophotometer let electrons move through them and create a tight spiral. Both the angle and the flow that flow through the lens influence the flow of electrons in the lens.

Secondary electron detector

There are two types of detectors found in a scanner electron microscope (SEM). A primary electron detector measures the amount of energy emitted from an object . The secondary detector monitors how much energy is dispersed in the image. A scanning electron microscope, the latter is usually used for objects with a high contrast, which is impossible to attain using a traditional detector. Apart from the primary detector There are two kinds of secondary electron detectors. EDX and FEI spectroscopy.

The image of SE1 shows an example of shale. The SE1 signal originates from the top of the specimen. It’s usually used to show detail of the surface at high resolution however, it is at the cost of compositional data. Comparatively, the SE2 image shows the consequences of higher energy landing and deeper interaction with the specimen. The SE2 image contrasts with the SE2 image, which, in turn is composed and offers a better resolution. Both types of SEMs offer different strengths as well as limits.


Computer programs are able to take advantage of the numerous advantages offered by scanning electron microscopes. The microscope needs stable electricity sources, a cool systemand a non-vibration atmosphere. using an electron beam that is placed in one of the patterns. It starts with an electron guns. Its lenses made of electromagnetic energy, known as solenoids, focus the incident electron beam towards the object’s surface. They also boost the speed of the electron beam as it goes through the specimen’s surfaces.

SEM enhances the electron beam through a voltage system. The beam then gets narrowed through a series of scan coils placed along the surface of the specimen. As the electron beam comes into contact with the sample, signals that result from the interaction will be generated in the form of secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, or characteristic X-rays. The data is then processed into pictures.