In the wild, herbicide resistance could confer advantages to plants.
Credit: Xiao Yang
One of the most common methods employed to make crops resistant to herbicides was shown to have advantages over rice varieties that are weedy. These findings suggest that such modifications may have a wide spectrum of effects that extend beyond farms, and even in the wild.
A variety of crops have been modified genetically to be intolerant to the herbicide glyphosate. It was initially advertised under the brand name Roundup. This resistance to glyphosate enables farmers to eliminate plants without doing any harm to their crops.
Glyphosate is an inhibitor of the growth of plants. It blocks an enzyme known as EPSP synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the production of certain amino acids and other molecules. These substances can account for up to 35% of a plant’s mass. The genetic-modification technique — utilized, for instance, in Roundup Ready crops made by the biotechnology giant Monsanto which is headquartered in St Louis, Missouri -usually involves inserting genes into the crop’s genome to boost EPSP-synthase production. Genes typically come from bacteria that cause disease to plants.
ラウンドアップ The plant is able to resist the adverse effects of glyphosate because it has an extra EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs have also attempted to create EPSP synthase with more plant-based components than bacteria using genes from plants. This was partially used to take advantage of a loophole found in US law, which permits regulatory approval for organisms that are not derived from bacterial parasites.
Few studies have looked into the possibility that transgenes, like those that confer resistance the chemical glyphosate can make plants more resilient to surviving and reproduce once they cross-pollinate with weedy or wild species. Norman Ellstrand of University of California Riverside declares, “The conventional expectation is that any type of transgene in the wild will cause disadvantages if there is no selection pressure , because the added machinery can decrease the health.”
Lu and his associates modified cultivars of rice to produce more EPSP synthase. ラウンドアップ They also crossed the modified rice with a weedy-related. https://www.cainz.com/g/4957919634535.html Their research was published in NewPhytologist 1.
The researchers then allowed offspring cross-bred to breed with one another, creating second generation hybrids which are genetically similar to their parents except the number of copies of the gene that encodes EPSP synthase. As one would expect, the higher number of copies of the gene produced higher levels enzyme as well as more tryptophan than the unmodified counterparts.
Researchers also discovered that transgenic plants had higher rates for photosynthesis, produced more flowers, and produced 48 to 125 percent fewer seeds per plant than nontransgenic hybrids. This was despite the fact that glyphosate was not present.
Lu claims that making weedy crops more competitive could create more difficulties to farmers all over the world who have crops affected by the insect.
Brian Ford-Lloyd, an UK plant geneticist. ラウンドアップ 20 l He says, “If the EPSP synthase gene becomes present in wild rice varieties their genetic diversity will be endangered, which is important because the genotype with transgene is superior to the natural species.” This is one of the most evident examples of plausible negative effects [of GM crop on the environment.”
The general public believes that genetically engineered crops with extra copies or microorganisms genes are safer than ones with only the genes of their owners. “Our study suggests that this isn’t always the case,” says Lu.
Researchers say this discovery requires review of the regulations for the future on the use of genetically modified plants. Ellstrand thinks that biosafety rules may be relaxed because we have a great level of satisfaction from the two decades of genetic engineering. “But the study proved that new products need to be evaluated with care.”