Auto Draft may be resistant to herbicides.

Credit Xiao Yang
A well-known method of genetic modification of crops to make them resistant to herbicides has been found to give advantages to weedy varieties rice, even when herbicide isn’t in use. suggests that these changes could be detrimental to the environment beyond farms.

A variety of cultivars are genetically modified in order to resist the effects of glyphosate. ラウンドアップ was first sold under the tradename Roundup. Farmers can eradicate most herbicides from their fields using this glyphosate resistance without damaging their crops.

Glyphosate inhibits growth of plants by inhibiting EPSP synthase (an enzyme that is involved in the creation of certain amino acids, and other molecules). ラウンドアップ 古い can comprise as much as 35 percent or more of the plant’s total mass. The technique of genetic modification is employed, for example, in Roundup Ready plants made by Monsanto Biotechnology, a biotech company located in St Louis, Missouri. It involves inserting genes into the genome of the crop to increase EPSP synthase-synthase-production. The genes are typically derived from bacteria that have been infected by plants.

The extra EPSP synthase helps the plant be resistant to the effects of glyphosate. Biotechnology labs have tried using plant genes to boost EPSP synthase production. This was partly to take advantage of a loophole in US law that allows regulatory approval of organisms containing transgenes that are not derived from pests of bacteria.

Few studies have investigated the possibility that transgenes like glyphosate-resistant genes could — after introduction to wild or weedy plants through cross-pollination enhance the competition of plants in survival, reproduction and growth. Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside, said that the traditional expectation was that any transgene could cause disadvantage in nature when there was no pressure to select. ラウンドアップ is because any extra machinery could reduce the fitness.

ラウンドアップ , an ecologist from Fudan University in Shanghai has revised that opinion. He found that glyphosate resistance gives an impressive fitness boost to the weedy version of the popular rice plant Oryza sativa.

Lu and coworkers modified the cultivars of rice to increase its EPSP synthase. The modified rice was then crossed with a wild-type relative.

The researchers then allowed offspring that were cross-bred to breed with one another, creating second generation hybrids that were genetically identical to their parents with the exception for the number of duplicates of the gene that codes for EPSP synthase. As expected, those with more copies expressed higher amounts of the enzyme and produced more amino acids tryptophan than their non-modified counterparts.

Researchers also found that transgenics have higher rates, had more flowers and 48-125% more seeds/plant than nontransgenics.

Lu believes that making weedy, invading rice more competitive might make it more difficult for farmers to recover from the harm caused by this pest.

ラウンドアップ エクセル -Lloyd, Brian Ford-Lloyd is a UK plant geneticist. He says, “If the EPSP synthase gene gets in the wild rice varieties, their genetic diversity would be at risk, which is important because the genotype with transgene has a higher level of competition than the standard species.” “This is a prime illustration of the most probable and damaging effects of GM crops on the environment.”

The general public believes that genetically modified plants containing more copies of their own genes than microorganisms are more safe. This notion is also challenged by this study. Lu states that his study doesn’t support this belief.

Researchers believe this discovery calls for a review of the regulations for the future on the use of genetically modified plants. Ellstrand believes that biosafety regulations can be relaxed since we can enjoy a high level security from two decades of genetic engineering. “But, ラウンドアップ showed that new products need to be evaluated with care.”