Auto Draft

In nature, resistance to herbicides may confer advantages on plants.

ラウンドアップ : Xiao Yang
A common method of genetic modification that makes crops resistant to herbicides has been shown to offer advantages over rice varieties that are weedy. The results suggest that the benefits of this modifications could extend beyond farms and out into the wild.

A variety of crops are created genetically to resist the glyphosate. This herbicide, initially known as Roundup it was released on the market in the year 1996 under the trade name Roundup. Farmers can eradicate most the weeds that grow in their fields by using this glyphosate resistance , without causing damage to their crops.

Glyphosate blocks the enzyme EPSP synthase which is responsible for the creation of certain amino acid and various other molecules. It also can hinder the growth of plants. of genetic modification, which is employed for Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) involves inserting genetic material in a plant to boost EPSP synthase production. The genes are often derived from bacteria that has infected the plants.

The plant can withstand the adverse effects of glyphosate due to the addition of EPSP synthase. ラウンドアップ tried to make use of the genes of plants to increase the EPSP synthase enzyme, in part to take advantage of a loophole in the American system which permits the approval of regulatory authorities of transgenes which are not derived from bacteria-based pests.

There aren’t many studies that have examined the possibility that transgenes that confer tolerance could — after they become weedy or wild relatives via cross-pollinating -enhance the plant’s longevity and reproductive. Norman Ellstrand is a University of California Riverside plant geneticist. “The assumption is that any kind of transgene will cause disadvantage in the wild, in absence of select pressure, because it would reduce the fitness of the plant,” Ellstrand said.

Lu Baorong, an ecologist from Fudan University in Shanghai has rewritten that view. He has discovered that resistance to glyphosate provides significant fitness benefits to a weedy variant of the standard rice crop Oryza sativa.

In their study, published this month in New Phytologist 1, Lu and his coworkers genetically altered the cultivated rice species to enhance the species’ own EPSP synthase. They also crossed-bred the modified rice with a weedy cousin.

The researchers then allowed offspring cross-bred to breed with one another, resulting in second generation hybrids which were genetically identical to their parents, except the number of duplicates of the gene that codes for EPSP synthase. As expected, the hybrids with more copies had a higher chance to make more tryptophan and had greater levels of enzymes than their unmodified counterparts.

Researchers also discovered that the hybrids with transgenic genes had higher rates of photosynthesis, produced more flowers and shoots and produced 48 to 125 percent more seeds than the non-transgenic hybridswithout the use of glyphosate.

Lu believes making weedy, aggressive rice more competitive could make it more difficult for farmers to recoup the damage caused by this insect.

Brian Ford-Lloyd of the University of Birmingham, UK, says “If the EPSP synthase gene is introduced to wild rice species their genetic diversity, which was really important in conserving it, could be endangered because it will beat out the conventional varieties.” ” ラウンドアップ 業務用 is one illustration of the most likely and harmful negative effects of GM crops on the environment.”

The research also challenges the perception that genetically modified plants with more copies of their genes are less risky than crops that have microorganism genes. Lu claims that the research “shows that this is not always true”.

Researchers say this finding calls for review of the regulations for the future on the use of genetically modified plants. Ellstrand claims that “some people are now of the opinion that biosafety regulation could be relaxed because we have an incredibly comfortable relationship with genetic engineering over the last two decades.” The study found that any new products should be carefully evaluated.