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Wild plants could be given herbicide resistance.

Credit to Xiao Yang
One of the most common methods that makes crops resistant to herbicides was shown to be superior over weedy forms of rice. These findings suggest that such modifications can have a broad range of effects beyond the farms and in the wild. A variety of kinds of crops are genetically modified to be resistive to the glyphosate. Roundup was the first herbicide to be sold. Farmers can get rid of herbicides from their fields by using glyphosate without harming their crops due to this resistance.

Glyphosate blocks an enzyme called EPSP synthase that is responsible for the creation of certain amino acid and various other molecules. It can also hinder plant growth. ラウンドアップ Genetic modification, like the Roundup Ready crops manufactured by Monsanto in St. Louis, Missouri, involves inserting genes into a plant’s genetic code to boost EPSP production. Genes are typically derived from bacteria that infects crops.

The additional EPSP synase allows for plants to resist the effects of glyphosate. Biotechnology labs also have tried to create EPSP synthase with more plant-based components than bacteria using genes that come from plants. This was partly done to exploit an inconsistency found in US law that allows regulatory approval for species which aren’t the result of bacterial parasites.

ラウンドアップ グリホサート There aren’t many studies that have examined whether transgenes, such as those that confer resistance to the chemical glyphosate can help plants to be more resilient to surviving and reproduce once they cross-pollinate with weedy or wild species. Norman Ellstrand, a University of California plant geneticist states that without competition, any type of transgene is likely to create disadvantages in wild plants. The extra machinery would lower fitness.

Lu Baorong (an ecologist at Fudan University, Shanghai) has now questioned that opinion. ラウンドアップ It has shown that resistance to glyphosate provides an impressive fitness boost to a weedy rice crop called Oryza sativa even when it is not in use.

Lu and his colleagues genetically modified the rice species to express the EPSP synthase. They then crossed-bred it to an marijuana-producing parent.

The team then let the offspring of crossbreeding to cross-breed to create second-generation hybrids. They were identical genetically apart from the number of EPSP synthase genes they had. The ones with more copies expressed higher levels of the enzyme and also produced more amino acid tryptophan than their unmodified counterparts.

Researchers also discovered that the hybrids with transgenic genes had greater rates of photosynthesis, produced more flowers and shoots and produced 48 to 125 percent more seeds than the non-transgenic hybrids -without the use of glyphosate.

Lu says that making weedy grains more competitive can create more difficulties for farmers across the world who have crops affected by the pest.

Brian Ford-Lloyd of the University of Birmingham, UK Brian Ford-Lloyd, a researcher at the University of Birmingham in the “If the EPSP synthase gene is introduced to wild rice species their genetic diversity, which was really important in conserving it, could be threatened because it would beat out the conventional varieties.” This is among the most clear examples of plausible negative effects [of GM crop] on the environment.”

The general public believes that plants with genetically modified genes containing more than one copy of their genes than those from microorganisms are safer. ラウンドアップ 畑に使える This is also challenged by the study. ラウンドアップ Lu states, “Our study shows this is not always the case.”

The research results call for a review of future regulations for the genetically altered crops, researchers say. “Some people are now suggesting that biosafety regulations can be relaxed since we’ve achieved an extremely high level of satisfaction in the last two years of genetic engineering” says Ellstrand. ラウンドアップ The study showed that new products need to be evaluated carefully.